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Auteur: Karine ABRAHAMYAN

Co-Auteur(s): Narine R. Nazaretyan, Yerevan State Medical University after M. Heratsi, ASrmenia

Cognitive word-formation: synchronic and diachronic approaches

Abstract/Résumé: It is well known that mentality of a nation is well reflected in the language, the latter in its turn being the direct reflection of the national mentality. All this is represented in numerous language stereotypes necessary to understand the culture and mentality of the ethnos. In this respect contrastive analysis of derivational prototypes of the superordinate level is significant. As such we consider the typical derivational clusters (TDC) of words of the same lexico-semantic groups in different languages, in our case TDC-s of English, Armenian and Russian verbs of perception. Contrastive analysis of our observations according to the ratings of Goodness-of-Exemplar (GOE) and Degree-of-Membership (DOM) proves that the majority of the positions in the general Table of ratings are identical in all the three, or at least two languages. Thus, in the first position in English and Russian are the verbs of visual activity “see” and “зреть” and English-Armenian verbs of sense perception “feel” and “zgal”. In the second position three-language correlation is observed – the verbs “taste”, “chashakel”, “есть”. It is worth mentioning that English and Armenian verbs “taste”and “chashakel” besides specialized meaning of taste perception express also the meaning of general perception, perception without any concretization of the process (just like the Russian verb “вкушать”). The same phenomenon is observed in many other Indoeuropean languages. For example, the French verb “savourer” expresses the meaning "to partake, taste, enjoy the fruits of something" and etymologically goes back to the Latin “sapere”, which means both "to have the taste of something" and "to know". The last meaning of the Latin word is preserved in Modern Italian verb “sapere” which means "to know". The same is true of the Spanish verb “gustar”. Thus, widening of the domains of the prototype theory, applying it to new spheres of language proves its viability and brings about new perspectives for further polylingual investigations.