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Auteur: Mami MURATA

Co-Auteur(s): Ayaka Onohara, Shinsuke Kishie

The dialect accent of Shodo Island in Kagawa Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan

Abstract/Résumé: The Japanese language has a pitch accent, in contrast to stress accents found in Western languages and tone found in Chinese. By observing the pitch of spoken Japanese geographically, we can classify accents broadly into two types, the Tokyo-type, and the Keihan-type. The Tokyo-type accent, which is found around the east of Japan, has a pitch determined by the presence or absence of the nucleus and its position. The Keihan-type accent, which is found mainly in Kyoto and Osaka, is determined by pitch as well as tone. Shodo Island is in the Inland Sea of Kagawa Prefecture. Sanuki-type accent that is spoken in Kagawa Prefecture has many variations. Shodo Island-type accent is also one variety of Sanuki-type accent, which is unique and differs from both Tokyo and Keihan-type accents. In fact, it is said that it may be the closest accent to the Japanese prototype accent system. Studying the details of the variation of the Sanuki-type accents such as the accent of Shodo Island accent should result in the clear understanding of the Sanuki-type accent system. Understanding of the Sanuki-type accent may lead us to clarification of the Japanese prototype accent system, which is important for the study of Japanese accents. We interpreted the various courses of change in the Shodo-type accent according to the theory proposed by H. KINDAICHI (1975). We also compiled the results of this study into a descriptive anthology to reveal the characteristics found in the villages of Shodo Island, and compared it with the research results of Y.NAKAI (1998) to observe the changes over time. Through the comparison of the changes over time, we found that the accent has changed and the diversity of the Japanese pitch has been simplifying due to the loss of falling and raising tone within a mora. It is not rare that many accent variations are found around the narrow areas, for example, the Noto Peninsula and the Sea of Kumano in the Kinki area which are in the same situation as Shodo Ireland. Besides, making clear how those changes have developed is really important for Japanese accent study, and the example of Shodo Island is one of the case studies. Incidentally, the data we used in this paper is based on voices that had been recorded on March, 2012. We interviewed with 51 people who were over 65 years old respectively, and who were born and grew up in Shodo Island, then, we asked them to read a list we had prepared for our research. In the research, we checked up the nouns with 1~5 moras, and the verbs and adjectives with 2~4 moras, then, we picked up the words with 3~5 moras that were easier to find the differences of tone patterns as the object for the tone analyses after we had described classificatory systems of the nouns with 1~2 moras.