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Auteur: Sang-Tae KIM

The Rule of Writing System of Hanzi in both Old Japanese and Old Korean

Abstract/Résumé: In this, I examined the rule of writing system of Hanzi in both Old Korean and Old Japanese. Chinese characters are called Hanzi in Chinese, are used for Hancha in Korean and for Kanji in Japanse. In Korea, between the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, Hancha came to be used among the elite. In Japan, between the 4th and 7th centuries AD, Koreans and Chinese emigrated to Japan, and Chinese were introduced into Japan. In this, I have two objectives. First, I investigated into the rules of adapting Chinese for writing Korean and Japanese. Hanzi was used to record native Korean/Japanese, to represent Korean/Japanese syllables that resembled Chinese words, and to represent Chinese loan words. The Japanese use of Hanzi is similar to the use Korean, however, is not the same. For example, the Hun/Korean reading which indicates meaning was practised in the past but no longer used. But the Kun/Japanese reading is still now used. In this, in taking into the variations of writing in two countries which occur between surface and original form, Hanzi which is composed of meaning, form and sound. I examined the rules of writing system, when the Hanzi was realized graphically in two languages, the character was applied by graphological rule. I think this study is a cross-linguistic analysis of the phonology-morphology-writing system. Second, Koreans needed to make reading easir by clarifying the relations among clauses in understanding Chinese, they developed a method called Kugyol, which involved inserting native grammatical morpheme into clause boundaries. These grammatical morphemes were written in Hancha, sometimes using their meanings and sounds. And, the early texts written in Chinese lacked the affixes in Japanese. The katakana arose from abbreviated characters to insert into academic and administrative texts, particularly to indicate the Japanese affixes which were not represented in Chinese texts. In general, the katakana were formed by writing only a part of character.