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Argument Coding By Genitive In Georgian

Abstract/Résumé: In Georgian there are specific verbal constructions of dative-genitive frame, e.g.: (1) nino-s ešinia ʒaɣl-is. Nino-DAT is afraid dog-GEN ‘Nino is afraid of dogs.’ (2) ana-s rcxvenia ded-is. Ann-DAT feels shy mother-GEN ‘Ann feels shy before her mother.’ (3) tina-s sc’ams ɣvt-is. Thina-DAT trusts God-GEN ‘Thina trusts in God.’ The verbs of those constructions could be characterized as the verbs of emotional experience, having two roles in their semantic structure: a stimulus and an experiencer. An experiencer coded by dative is characteristic of some other verbs (Liking type ones), though the stimulus, is coded by nominative in the corresponding clause structure: (4) ana-s uq’vars vano-Ø. Ann-DAT loves Vano-NOM ‘Ann loves Vano.’ (5) soso-s sʒuls kat-eb-i . Soso-DAT hates cat-PL-NOM ‘Soso hates cats’. Parallel constructions of dative-nominative frame are attested for some verbs of emotional experience: (6) ana-s rcxvenia simɣera-Ø. Ann-DAT feels shy singing-NOM ‘Ann feels shy of singing.’ (7) nik'o-s sǯera es ambav-i. Nick-DAT believes this story-NOM. ‘Nick believes the story.’ Mostly argument coded by nominative is a form of a masdar (an infinite form of a verb): (8) ma-s erideba txovna-Ø. she/he-DAT feels shy asking-NOM ‘She/he feels shy of asking.’ (9) ma-s exatreba uar-is tqma-Ø she/he-DAT feels embarrassed refusal-GEN saying-NOM ‘She/he feels embarrassed about saying no.’ Usually a complement clause might appear in the same slot of construction: (10) ma-s erideba, rom stxovos. she/he-DAT feels shy that (she/he) asks (subjunctive mood) ‘She/he feels shy that she is going to ask.’ (11) ma-s exatreba, rom uar-i utxras. she/he-DAT feels embarrassed that refusal-NOM (she/he) says (subj. mood) Clause structures having non-canonical Dative/Genitive argument coding and parallel constructions have been analyzed by Georgian and foreign linguist. In the paper all the approaches concerning the abovementioned constructions are summarized, all the verbs of emotional experience are presented and a new interpretation is proposed: The fact that different types of clause structures correspond to the same semantic structure of the verbs of emotional experience is due to the cognitive interpretation of the stimulus: With verbs of emotional experience the stimulus could be perceived as either an addressee (whom the emotion is directed to) or an object of a corresponding emotion. When it is perceived as an object of the emotion, it is coded by nominative, but when it is perceived as an addressee, the case form is genitive. As for the experiencer, it is always coded by dative case.