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Auteur: Chakir ZEROUAL

Co-Auteur(s): John.H. ESLING, University of Victoria, Canada. Phil HOOLE, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet-Muenchen, Germany. Rachid RIDOUANE, Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie CNRS-UMR7018, France.

Contribution to the study of pharyngeal, epiglottal, and laryngeal consonants

Abstract/Résumé: This study is based on the IPA chart (2005), our phonetic investigations of Moroccan Arabic (MA) consonants, and on influential analyses proposed for back consonants (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996; Esling 1996; McCarthy 1994; Halle et al. 2000). We demonstrate that pharyngeals and epiglottals are generally aryepiglottal closer to laryngeals. Phonetics Our endoscopic data (normal & high speed camera: 1 subject) show that the vocal folds (VF) are abducted during /s/ and adducted during /z/; the ventricular bands (VB) stay apart during /s z/. These are typical laryngeal postures of voiceless and voiced segments. During MA /h/, the anterior part of the glottis is closed, its posterior part open, and the VB abducted. /h/ is a voiced glottal fricative produced with breathy voice. MA has two (ary)epiglottal consonants produced with aryepiglottal constriction and tongue root retraction. The VF are entirely adducted and vibrating during the voiced one; only the posterior part of the glottis is open during the voiceless one. The VB are slightly adducted but not vibrating during these consonants. The aryepiglottal constriction seems to be their primary articulation. Indeed, the MA voiceless aryepiglottal has several properties of "whisper" speech which also induces aryepiglottic compression. MA aryepiglottals are approximants. If we produce tighter constrictions than during MA (ary)epiglottals, a lateral aryepiglottic fold vibration is observed. The results are fricative segments. Our EMA and ultrasound data (3 subjects) show strong coarticulation between MA aryepiglottals and laryngeals and the adjacent vowels in aCa, iCi, and uCu, which is another close connection between epiglottals and laryngeals. Phonology For McCarthy (1994) pharyngeals/epiglottals and laryngeals have a Place node, while for Halle et al. (2000) this node is absent in their representations. We provide several phonological processes involving the natural class of pharyngeals/epiglottals and the laryngeals, and suggesting that laryngeals and pharyngeals/epiglottals have the feature [Pharyngeal], but only the latter have [Radical] under this node. References Esling, J.H. (1996) Pharyngeal consonants and the aryepiglottic sphincter, JIPA 26. Halle, M., Vaux, B. & Wolfe, A. (2000) On feature spreading and the representation of place of articulation. Linguistic Inquiry 31. McCarthy J. (1994) The phonetics and phonology of Semitic pharyngeals. In P. Keating (ed.) Papers in Laboratory Phonology III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.