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Detail of contribution

Auteur: Kazuko TANABE

Co-Auteur(s): Kiyomi CHUJO, Japan University,Japan Haruna FUNATO, Ochanomizu University, Japan

Newspaper Corpus Based Lexical Grammtical Analysis of Sino-Japanese Words

Abstract/Résumé: The purpose of this research is to prove that even when grammar forms that are selected often are different depending on the words, the difference is determined by the meaning of the word. To see which grammar forms were actually used in newspapers, 263 Sino-Japanese words, characteristic of newspaper usage according to log likelihood measurement (Chujo et al., 2010), were analyzed using the "Japanese -English News Article Alignment Database" (Uchiyama & Isahara, 2003). The 263 Sino-Japanese words investigated in this study are two Sino characters combined lexical items in the gerund form (for example, 'kakunin', confirmation). They are nouns that can be used as verbs when followed by verb,'-suru' or a conjugated form of 'suru' (for example, 'kakunin-suru', to confirm). 'Suru' is an irregular verb conjugated with '-sa','-shi','-su','-se', and '-so'. Because '-se' and '-so' are adopted at a very low rate in this study, the frequency of use of the five conjugated forms of 'suru', including 'sa-re'(passive form), 'sa-se'(causative form), 'shi-ta'(past perfect form), 'shi-te'(present perfect form) and 'suru' (infinitive form) are surveyed through ParaConc retrieval software (Balow, 2004). When we analyzed the 263 words using the method of principal component analysis, we found the following three components: In the first component, the words are divided into the frequently used nouns group and the frequently used verbs group. Example are 'kaikaku (improvement)' and 'senkyo (election)' which are almost always used as nouns while 'jissi-suru (implement)' and 'happyo-suru (announce)' are frequently employed as verbs. In the second component, 'sa-re'(passive form) and 'sa-se'(causative form) are completely opposites, and the 'shi-ta', 'shi-te', '-suru' groups belong to the 'sa-se' group. Examples of these are 'shiteki-sare (to be indicated)' and 'sokushin-sase (cause to be promoted)'. The third component was categorized as no end usage of the 'sa-re' group, as well as 'shi-ta' and 'suru' in adnominal clauses, and 'shi-te' as a whole. The present findings suggest that, at least in press statements published in newspapers, tendencies in the usage of the various forms of 'suru' with respect to tense, voice, and aspect are closely related to meanings. This confirms that the meaning of lexical items of Sino-Japanese words influences grammatical form selection.