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Auteur: Elizaveta KOTOROVA

Communicative-pragmatic field as a model of culturally driven speech behavior

Abstract/Résumé: Comparative studies of two or several languages are a priority of the modern linguistic science. Such studies help us to discover similarities and differences in the structure and functioning of the languages under study, which in turn may serve as a basis for typological generalizations. There is a tendency to cover all the levels of language structure as well as every single phenomenon, although no such multifaceted comparison has been completed for a concrete language pair so far. Along with some other linguistic phenomena, those of text and discourse still remain to be explored. The main constituent of discourse is the speech act that follows the rules and principles of speech behavior inherent to a given language in a given society. A key component of the speech act is represented by illocutionary force which characterizes the communicative intentions of a speaker and embodies the communicative function of an utterance. Various means of expressing every concrete illocutionary act can be represented as a field. Examination of this field lets us discover how frequent and prototypical each single means realizing a given utterance in the language is. The field principle is a productive means for revealing relations existing in the lexical-semantic and grammatical system of language. The first part of this presentation introduces a new type of field, the communicative-pragmatic field, intended for the analysis of linguistic realization of communicative behavior of interactants. The place of the field in question among other types of fields is defined, and the principles of the organization of the field as well as its structure and composition are described. The aim of a communicative act or its illocutionary force is regarded as a dominant that provides a possibility to consolidate all possible speech act realizations in a language with a given illocutionary force into a field. Thereby “communicative-pragmatic field” is understood as the totality of utterances realizing the same illocutionary purpose and the same strategy of communication. The second part of the presentation discusses main principles and peculiarities of the linguistic analysis based on the communicative-pragmatic field approach. It also presents a certain nomenclature of communicative-pragmatic fields for the Russian language, some of which are compared with the corresponding fields in English and German.