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Auteur: Ayaka ONOHARA

Co-Auteur(s): Mami MURATA, Tamaki YANO, Shinsuke KISHIE

Phylogenetic Analyses about Historical Dynamics of Accentual Systems in Shodo Island, Japan

Abstract/Résumé: This study is about the Shodo Island’s accents. Shodo Island locates in Kagawa Prefecture (former Sanuki district) of Shikoku, Japan. Shodo Island’s accents are one of the Sanuki accents. The aim of this study is two-fold: (1) to estimate and visualize the relationships between communities phylogenetically in order to determine the change of Shodo Island’s accents, and (2) to add an overviewing approach to comparative linguistics methodology in the study of accents. The reasons for those purposes are as follows. It is said that the Sanuki accents have traced a different route from other regional accents in Japan (H. Kindaichi 1965). Thus, from a historical perspective, it is necessary to examine the various types of the Sanuki accents. Therefore, it is significant to study Shodo Island’s accents because it contributes to the historical research on Japanese accentual system and it informs variations how to change accents. To reveal the change of Shodo Island’s accents, phylogenetic methods have been used in this study. While methods of comparative linguistics are effective for understanding the detailed changes between the elements, phylogenetic methods are useful for understanding the overall trend followed by local accents. The method used in this study could detect potential factors theoretically that may not be noticed by comparative linguistics methodology. The methods of this study are as follows. In order to reveal changes of accents, Y. Nakai (1998)’s results of analysis (we use [1998] as an abbreviation in the sequel) and our survey data ([2012]) was compared. These data were analyzed by phylogenetic methods (Neighbor-Net, Splits Decomposition and Parsimony Splits). Consisted of data are two-mora nouns and three-mora adjectives. For eight types of nouns and two types of adjectives about 10 locations, have been calculated similarities between patterns of the combination high accent and low accent. Phylogenetic networks have been showed using the calculated similarities. These show the differences of accents by locations. As a result of analysis by this methodology, the phylogenetic estimation of [1998] consists of three distinct groups. Although Shodo Island’s accents are clearly separated in [1998], these accents change to confusional state in [2012]. The accents of the north east of the island have changed. This area is connected to provinces of Keihan by a sailing –route. This route might have been affected to accent’s change in the north east of the island. However, we're going to need a little more analysis from a different angle about what factors how to have affected the change of accents.